There is increasing consensus among European truck manufacturers and industry stakeholders that battery electric trucks (BEVs) will become the dominant technology. As trucks are heavily used capital goods, the advantage of battery electric vehicles in terms of lower fuel and maintenance costs grows with increasing mileage, making them particularly competitive for long-haul transport[1].

BEVs are the preferable zero-emission technology from an energy efficiency and holistic energy transition perspective. They will likely be the dominant choice as they require half as much green electricity as renewable hydrogen used in fuel cell vehicles running on green hydrogen (FCEVs).

With trucks being heavily-used capital goods which are running for more than a million kilometres over their lifetime, operating costs for electricity or fuel as well as maintenance have a significant impact on the total cost of ownership (TCO) as they scale with increasing mileage.

This makes BEVs extremely competitive especially for long-haul operations provided that they can meet all operational needs such as sufficient driving range, no additional time losses due to recharging or refuelling, and similar payload capabilities. Our analysis[2] shows that it is possible to fully transition all new freight trucks to battery electric cost-effectively and in time to meet Europe's climate targets.

European truck manufacturers are now focussing on bringing battery electric trucks to the mass market for all vehicle segments, including for long-haul starting from 2024.

Around 30 zero-emission truck models have already been announced to go into mass production for the European market by 2025.

In addition, the first series production of FCEVs is planned for the end of the decade by several manufacturers in Europe.

To speed up the switch, the deployment of an effective and comprehensive charging infrastructure network for electric trucks is key.


  1. ^ making them particularly competitive for long-haul transport (
  2. ^ Our analysis (